Heparin sodium is a sodium glucosamine sulfate salt, is a mixture of different molecular weight molecules. Its molecule has a linear chain structure composed of hexose or ocosaccharide repeating units. Disaccharide trisulfate is the main disaccharide unit of heparin. After complete hydrolysis, d-glucosamine, D-glucuronic acid, L-eduronic acid, acetic acid and sulfuric acid are produced.
Heparin sodium has been found in mast cells of many mammalian organs. However, due to different national conditions, the primary extract of heparin sodium is produced in different places. In Europe and The United States, the primary extract is cow lungs, while the production line in China usually selects the mucous membrane of pig intestines.
Heparin molecules contain sulfate groups and carboxyl groups, which are strongly acidic and polyanions, and can react with cations to form salts.
Heparin sodium is a sodium salt of glucosamine sulfate, a viscous polysaccharide substance, which plays an anticoagulant role by activating antithrombin ⅲ (AT- ⅲ). It affects all three stages of the coagulation process and has anticoagulant effects in vivo and in vitro, prothrombin time and thrombin time can be prolonged. No absorption by oral administration, good absorption by subcutaneous, muscular or intravenous administration.
Heparin sodium is white or nearly white powder, odorless, odorless, hygroscopic, soluble in water, insoluble in ethanol, acetone, dioxane and other organic solvents vitality decreased.
Matters needing attention:
(1) History of allergic diseases and asthma;
(2) oral surgery and other surgeries prone to bleeding;
(3) adequate oral anticoagulants;
(4) excessive menstruation;
(5) Pregnant and postpartum women (heparin increases the risk of maternal bleeding due to the first three months of pregnancy or the postpartum period).