Enoxaparin sodium is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) produced from maternal heparin by phenylmethyl ester β-elimination and chemical lysis, which is an important member of anticoagulant therapy. The active site of enoxaparin is a unique 1, 6-dehydrated ring (two-ring) structure, which makes it different from other LMWH in pharmacological properties.
The mechanism of enoxaparin sodium is to catalyze the inactivation of coagulation factors IIa, Xa, IXa, XIa and XIIa by binding to antithrombin III (AT-III). Among them, enoxaparin plays an anticoagulant effect mainly by inhibiting Xa, which is characterized by less inhibition of thrombin than ordinary heparin and less elongation of APTT.
The pharmacokinetic characteristics of enoxparin sodium were almost 100% absorption by subcutaneous injection, the average maximum anti-XA activity in plasma was 2.35 hours, and the absolute bioavailability was close to 100%. The recommended dose of enoxparin showed linear pharmacokinetic properties, and its anticoagulant effect was dose-dependent.