Since its discovery, heparin has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of various thromboembolic diseases due to its rapid effect, precise curative effect and reversible anticoagulant effect. At present, heparin is mainly extracted from pig intestinal mucosa, pig and cow lung. Heparin is mainly divided into ordinary heparin, low molecular weight heparin, heparin derivatives, heparin analogues, such as danheparin.
Common heparin is a sulphated glucosamine mixture, which is a mucopolysaccharide sulfate composed alternately of D-glucosamine, L-iduronic acid and D-glucuronic acid. It can be prepared from the lungs of cattle or the intestinal mucosa of cattle, sheep and pigs.
Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is a short chain preparation which is separated from ordinary heparin or degraded by ordinary heparin. Due to the differences in molecular size, anticoagulant activity, preparation method and manufacturer, clinical low molecular weight heparin includes enoxaparin, dapheparin and natriheparin.
Synthesis heparin derivative Sulfonda sodium is a kind of amyl polysaccharide synthesized based on the structure of antithrombin heparin binding site.
Heparin analogue Dana-heparin sodium is a mixture of sulphated amino glucan, also prepared from pig intestine mucosa, and the main components are heparin sulfate, dermatin sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate.