Heparin sodium interferes with many parts of the blood clotting process and has anticoagulant effects both in vivo and in vitro. Its mechanism is complex, mainly through and antithrombin Ⅲ (AT - Ⅲ), and enhance the latter to activate Ⅱ, Ⅸ, X, Ⅺ and Ⅻ the inhibitory effect of clotting factors and its consequences involved in preventing platelet aggregation and destruction, inhibit the formation of blood coagulation activation of enzyme, blocking prothrombin into thrombin, inhibition of thrombin, thereby preventing fibrinogen to fibrin, Thus play an anticoagulant role.
1. Prevent thrombosis and embolism, such as deep venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, thrombophlebitis and postoperative thrombosis, etc.
2. Treatment of DIC caused by various causes, such as bacterial sepsis, early placental dissection, and lysis of malignant tumor cells, except for DIC caused by snake bite. Early application prevents the depletion of fibrinogen and other clotting factors.
3. Other anticoagulants in vivo and in vitro, such as cardiac catheterization, cardiopulmonary bypass, hemodialysis, etc.
Heparin sodium has adverse reactions
1. Bleeding is most common and can occur anywhere.
2. Common allergic reactions such as chills, fever and urticaria.
3. Long-term drug use can cause hair loss and temporary reversible baldness, osteoporosis and spontaneous fracture.
4. Local irritation, erythema, mild headache, hematoma, ulcer, etc. It is more serious after intramuscular injection, so intramuscular injection is not recommended.
5. Transient thrombocytopenia is still present. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is due to the heparin-platelet factor 4 antibody complex binding to the platelet factor 4 receptor. It can activate platelet aggregation and cause arteriole embolism. It's rare, but it can kill you. Heparin should be discontinued immediately if HIT occurs.