The physical and chemical properties
Heparin sodium is a white or almost white powder, tasteless, hydantic, soluble in water, insoluble in ethanol, acetone and other organic solvents. It has a strong negative charge in aqueous solution and can combine with some cations to form molecular complexes. Aqueous solution is more stable at pH 7.
Molecular structure of heparin sodium
Heparin sodium is a natural anticoagulant substance containing sulphuric acid viscous polysaccharide. Heparin is a general term for a cluster of acidic mucopolysaccharide mixtures with various molecular weights. Heparin has linear chain molecules composed of hexaosaccharide or octeosaccharide repeat units. The molecular weight ranges from 3000 to 30000, with an average molecular weight of about 15000.
The structural formula of heparin sodium mainly consists of two structural units:
Structural unit 1 is: GLCNHR-6-OSO3-GLCA-GLCNSO3-3, 6-2-oSO3-IDOA-2-OSO3-GLCNSO3-6-OSO3.
The structural unit 2 is: IDOA-2-OSO3-GLCNSO3-6 OChemicalbookSO3.
Heparin sodium binds with other mucopolysaccharides to form complex with protein in tissues, so the preparation of heparin consists of two steps: extraction, dissociation and purification of heparin protein complex. Heparin molecules contain sulfuric acid and carboxyl group, is strongly acidic, polyanion, can react with cations into salt. These include metal cations: Ca2+,Na+,K+, organic base long-chain pyridine compounds such as cetylpyridine chloride (CPC), brucine, basic dye - azuridine A, cationic surfactants (long-chain quaternary ammonium salts) such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; Cation exchanger and positively charged protein such as protamine 0 protein. N- sulfate group in heparin structure is closely related to anticoagulant action, and its anticoagulant activity will be reduced if damaged. N- sulfate group is sensitive to acid hydrolysis and is quite stable under alkaline conditions. The anticoagulant activity of heparin molecules is also decreased by esterification of free hydroxyl groups, such as sulfation, and its anticoagulant activity is not affected by acetylation.
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