The research origin of heparin sodium
In 1916, jay McLean, a medical student under Howell's guidance, conducted research on substances that promote blood clotting in humans. In his research, he found a liver extract that not only did not promote clotting, but also prevented it from clotting, and repeated tests later showed that the liver extract did indeed contain an anticoagulant. The substance was named heparin because it was extracted from animal livers. After more than 20 years of research, researchers found that bovine lung and pig small intestine also contain heparin, thus saving the production cost of heparin, on this basis, using chemical crystallization technology to prepare heparin sodium salt, since then, heparin sodium has become the international standard of heparin production. In 1940, heparin sodium was officially listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia, and heparin is used for clinical treatment.
Properties and characteristics of heparin sodium
At present, heparin is mainly derived from the small intestinal mucosa of pigs. It is a biochemical drug and cannot be synthesized artificially. According to research statistics, an average of 1Kg of heparin can be obtained from the small intestine of 2000 pigs. Heparin is a amino glucan sulfate produced by mast cells in connective tissue of animals. It is a mucopysaccharide with a molecular weight of 5000-30000. Heparin is the product of the synergistic action of a variety of cells, which has an extremely complex three-dimensional structure and participates in the multi-step enzymatic reaction of the body.
Heparin is highly negatively charged and can interfere with many aspects of the coagulation process, including anticoagulation in vivo and in vitro.
Heparin is commonly found in the form of its sodium salt, called heparin sodium. Heparin sodium is a mixture of asymmetric molecules with different molecular weights. It is the general name of sodium glucosamine sulfate.
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