Heparin sodium is a naturally anticoagulant, viscous polysaccharide containing sulfate groups. Heparin is a group of acidic mucopolysaccharide compounds with different molecular weight. Heparin is a linear chain molecule composed of hexaosaccharide or octeosaccharide repeat units with molecular weights ranging from 3000 to 30000 Da, with an average molecular weight of about 15000 Da.
Heparin manufacturers tell us that heparin sodium is made up of two structural units
Heparin is widely found in the mucous membranes of the liver, lungs and intestines of mammals and is usually combined with proteins to form complexes. Heparin is a mucopolysaccharide containing sulfuric acid, amino acids and aldose acids that can be isolated by enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins. At pH8-9, it has negative charge and can be coarsely separated by ion exchange with anion exchanger, and purified by precipitation of polysaccharide solution in high concentration ethanol.
Heparin binds with other mucopolysaccharides to form complexes with proteins in tissues. Therefore, the preparation process of biochemical heparin consists of two steps: extraction of heparin protein complex and separation and purification of heparin. Heparin molecules contain sulfate and carboxyl groups, is a strong acid, polyanion, can react with cations to form salt. These include metallic cations :Ca2+, Na+, K+, organic bases of long-chain pyridine compounds, such as cetylpyridine chloride (CPC), Strychten, the basic dye Azurin A, and cationic surfactants (long-chain quaternary ammonium salts), such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; Cation exchangers and positively charged proteins such as protamine 0. N - sulfate group in the structure of chaoyang biochemical heparin is closely related to anticoagulation, and destruction of N - sulfate group will reduce its anticoagulation activity. N-sulfate groups are sensitive to acid hydrolysis and are quite stable under alkaline conditions. The anticoagulant activity of heparin molecules is also reduced by esterification of free hydroxyl groups, such as vulcanization, while acetylation does not affect its anticoagulant activity. Heparin sodium is white or white powder, odorless, tasteless, good moisture absorption, soluble in water, insoluble in ethanol, acetone, dioxane and other organic solvents.
Lack of alkalinity causes the extract to become acidic, and heparin is quickly destroyed at high temperatures. Overheating can lead to premature coagulation of proteins, affecting the breakdown and dissolution of heparin. According to the characteristics of proteolytic enzyme, the method of protein removal by enzyme combined with acid regulation and oxidation was adopted. This method did not affect the total titer of heparin when removing protein. To prevent inactivation of heparin, sodium bisulfite is added as a protective agent during acid regulation and protein removal. Low temperature centrifugal protein isolation.