Heparin sodium is an anticoagulant. It is a mucopolysaccharide, a sodium salt of glucosamine sulfate extracted from the intestinal mucosa of pigs, cattle and sheep. It is secreted by mast cells and naturally exists in the blood in human body.
Heparin sodium has the functions of preventing platelet aggregation and destruction, inhibiting the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin monomer, inhibiting the formation of thrombin and fighting against the formed thrombin, preventing the conversion of prothrombin into thrombin and antithrombin. Heparin slows or prevents blood clotting in vitro and in vivo. Its mechanism of action is very complex and it affects many links in the coagulation process.
Its functions are as follows:
① Inhibit the formation and function of thrombin activating enzyme, thus preventing prothrombin from becoming thrombin;
② In high concentration, it can inhibit thrombin and other coagulation factors and prevent fibrinogen from becoming fibrin;
③ It can prevent platelet agglutination and destruction. In addition, the anticoagulant effect of heparin sodium is related to the negatively charged sulfate radical in the molecule. Alkaline substances with positive charge, such as protamine or toluidine blue, can neutralize the negative charge of its Chemicalbook, so it can inhibit its anticoagulant effect. Because heparin can activate and release lipoprotein esterase in the body, hydrolysis of chylomicron triglyceride and low density lipoprotein, it also has hypolipidemic effect.
Heparin sodium may be used in the treatment of acute thromboembolic disease, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). In recent years, heparin has been found to clear blood fat. Intravenous or deep intramuscular injection (or subcutaneous injection), 5000 ~ 10000 units each time.
Heparin sodium has low toxicity and the tendency to spontaneous bleeding is the main risk of heparin overdose. Oral ineffective, must be administered by injection. Intramuscular injection or subcutaneous injection is more irritating, occasionally allergic reaction, exceeding the amount may even cause cardiac arrest; I've seen alopecia and diarrhea occasionally. In addition, can cause spontaneous fracture. Long-term use can sometimes lead to thrombosis, which may be the result of the depletion of anticoagulase - ⅲ. Heparin sodium is prohibited in patients with bleeding tendency, severe liver and renal insufficiency, severe hypertension, hemophilia, intracranial hemorrhage, peptic ulcer, pregnant women and postpartum, visceral tumors, trauma and after surgery.