Heparin sodium can interfere with many links of the hemagglutination
process and has anticoagulant effect both in vivo and in vitro. Its mechanism is
complex, mainly through and antithrombin Ⅲ (AT - Ⅲ), and enhance the latter to
activate Ⅱ, Ⅸ, X, Ⅺ and Ⅻ the inhibitory effect of clotting factors and its
consequences involved in preventing platelet aggregation and destruction,
inhibit the formation of blood coagulation activation of enzyme, blocking
prothrombin into thrombin, inhibition of thrombin, thereby preventing fibrinogen
to fibrin, which play a role of anticoagulation.
1. Prevention of thrombosis and embolism, such as deep venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, thrombophlebitis and postoperative thrombosis.
2. Treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) caused by various causes, such as DIC caused by bacterial sepsis, early placental dissection, and malignant tumor cytolysis, except DIC caused by snake bite. Early application prevents the depletion of fibrinogen and other clotting factors.
3. Other in vivo and in vitro anticoagulants, such as cardiac catheterization, cardiac surgery, extracorporeal circulation, hemodialysis, etc.
Intravenous or intramuscular injection: 5,000 ~ 10,000 units/time, 4 ~ 12 hours per time. Static drops: add 10,000 to 20,000 units of 5% glucose in water or normal saline every 24 hours, 20 to 50 drops per minute.
1. The most common bleeding can occur anywhere.
2. Common allergic reactions such as chills, fever and urticaria.
3. Long-term medication can cause hair loss and transient reversible alopecia, osteoporosis, and spontaneous fractures.
4. Local irritation, erythema, slight headache, hematoma, ulcer, etc. Intramuscular injection is more serious, so intramuscular injection is not recommended.
5. Transient thrombocytopenia was seen. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is due to the heparin-platelet factor 4 antibody complex binding to the platelet factor 4 receptor. It can activate platelet aggregation and cause arteriole embolization. It is rare, but can be fatal. If HIT occurs, stop heparin immediately.
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