Chondroitin sulfate is a kind of glycosaminoglycan widely distributed in the extracellular matrix and the cell surface of animal tissues. The glycosaminoglycan chain is composed of glucuronic acid and n-acetylgalactosamine, which is connected to the serine residue of the core protein through a tetrasaccharide junction region.
Chondroitin sulfate has long been prescribed in Europe to treat osteoarthritis. The European league against rheumatism (EULAR) recommended chondroitin sulfate as A slow-acting drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis in 2003 on the basis of A large number of clinical studies and conclusions of meta-analysis, and listed oral chondroitin sulfate as level 1A of evidence for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, with recommended strength A, which represents the highest level of treatment strategy. Quality standards for chondroitin sulfate have been included in the European pharmacopoeia since version 5.6. Conte et al. found that an oral dose of 0.8 g per dose was more effective than two doses of 0.4 g per day. Uebelhard on chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis 11 randomized controlled trial report for the investigation and analysis, the conclusion is that long-term oral chondroitin sulfate is a safe, good tolerance and can effectively control pain symptoms, improve the ability of patients with knee arthritis activity, suggest that oral chondroitin sulfate as the basis of knee osteoarthritis treatments.
In 1992, the us FDA approved Cosamin ® capsules, each containing 0.4g chondroitin sulfate sodium and 0.5g glucosamine, as a dietary supplement for relieving osteoarthritis. In 2000, the U.S. national institutes of health (NIH) initiated the aminoglycan/chondroitin sulfate arthritis arbitration trial (GAIT), which recruited 1,588 patients over a 5-year period. The results showed that the aminoglycan/chondroitin sulfate complex was effective in patients with moderate to severe knee arthritis pain.
In Australia, chondroitin sulfate products belong to the category of nutrition and health care drugs, most of which are compound preparations made with ammonia sugar, used for the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis. Brazilian drug regulator Anvisa has followed the example of Europe in positioning chondroitin sulfate and ammonium as prescription drugs under the major brands Condroflex ® and Artico ®. The Japanese ministry of health and welfare positioned chondroitin sulfate and ammonium as pharmacodynamics nutrition products, the Korean chondroitin sulfate and ammonia products as prescription drugs, the Chinese pharmacopoeia and national drug standards accept the pig source chondroitin sulfate and its preparation quality standards.
Chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis pharmacodynamic profiles for the mechanism of three aspects: (1) stimulation cartilage synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix components, such as collagen, Ⅱ proteoglycans (chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid); (2) inhibit and reduce preinflammatory mediators and proteases, such as myeloperoxides, n-acetyl glucosaminidase, collagenase, hyaluronidase, elastase, etc., reduce the process of cell death, improve the extracellular matrix synthesis/decomposition balance; Inhibit cartilage degradation.
Jasvinder a. schingh et al. analyzed 43 osteoarthritis trials involving 9,110 patients and showed that chondroitin sulfate (alone or in combination with aminoglycan) was better than placebo in improving pain in patients with mild osteoarthritis and had a lower risk of serious side effects.
Chondroitin sulfate, as a drug or nutritional dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis, has been widely recognized at home and abroad. Currently, China is a major producer and exporter of chondroitin sulfate, with 80% of the world's chondroitin sulfate produced in China. Due to the different quality and purity of chondroitin sulfate produced by different sources and manufacturers, the therapeutic effect of chondroitin sulfate on osteoarthritis is significantly different, which also leads to the persistent doubts on the effect of chondroitin sulfate in recent years. As the largest manufacturer of chondroitin sulfate and cartilage type II collagen in the world, mattel technology (Qingdao) co., ltd. has always regarded product quality as the life of the company and is committed to leading the healthy development of the industry. In strengthening technology research and development and quality management at the same time, also actively developing new raw material, rich in chondroitin sulfate composition for different customers to provide more products in the field of application of choice at the same time, to ensure that provide the safe and effective products to final consumers, for healthy people and patients with osteoarthritis provide the powerful guarantee of a happy life.